New Job? Great time to start planning, so dive in!

Starting a new job can be nerve-racking , but it’s also exciting. You’re embarking on a new future, positioning yourself to write a fresh story on a clean slate. 

-Adena Friedman

When you accept your first job, you will probably get a packet of information someone from someone in the Human Resources department detailing your options on health insurance, dental and disability insurance, vacation time, flex savings, HSA accounts, retirement contributions, and company policies.  

Reviewing this packet can be overwhelming.  However, it also provides an excellent time for long-term financial planning!  So, dive in – your future self will be glad you did. 

 

Start easy – get the free stuff

Most employers use group purchasing power to get benefits at a discount.  This usually includes health, disability and life insurance but can also include club memberships, banking and more.

Get health insurance:

You need health and dental insurance, unless someone already provides that for you, so sign up. 

If your spouse has insurance, then review your new plan to see if the benefits are better or the cost is less. 

Life and Other Insurance

Most employers provide some amount of life and disability insurance.  Again, take what’s free.

If you have others who depend on your earnings to survive, then you may need to enroll in additional group life and disability insurance, if offered.  If there is no additional insurance or it is not sufficient, then you have other estate planning work to do!

Retirement – check for “free” money

Retirement may seem far off, but planning now will pay off because of the impact of compounding.

If your employer matches what you contribute, you really need to push to contribute so you get that match.  How else can you get that kind of return on your money at the front end?  (and if what I just wrote makes no sense to you, you really need to brush up on your Financial Literacy!)

As for investing, you can use the default investment option, but real long-term planning would be best.  That is, pick a fund that is geared to your anticipated retirement age if you must, but doing your own asset allocation among funds by investment objective will work out better over time.

As with other cash management decisions, you don’t want to sacrifice too much today for your future; strike a balance between enrolling in payroll deductions and having enough in your paycheck to keep enjoying yourself now. 

Other Benefits – continuing education

If you are offered continuing education, take the chance to improve your skills.  This makes you more marketable for when you want to advance or change jobs. 

Flex Spending and Credit Union

If you can sign up for an HSA account or other flex spending, do so to cover any uninsured medical bills that you could have during the year.  You will need to revisit each year, so you do not contribute too much, leaving funds never used in the plan.  

A credit union may provide benefits too, so check that out.

So, what about your Student Loans?

Putting part of your paycheck into important benefits may mean less left to destroy those student loans in a matter of months the way some bloggers tell you they have done.  However, debt management is only part of a total financial plan.  You need benefits like health insurance and should contribute to retirement if your employer matches, so keep everything in balance!

Work on your Financial literacy

If you have questions on any of this post, then please check out our other posts and please let us know what is not clear!

Thanks, and good luck with your new job!

 Steven

 

How can you plan to take a year off and still saving for retirement?

“Quote relating to subject matter, search on: http://www.brainyquote.com/, Select the quote text and then hit the quotation button to create.” – Quote’s Author

Here is a tough financial
planning challenge:

How do you
save to take a year off as a sabbatical, or go a big (expensive) vacation, and
still stay on track with saving for your retirement?  

What if you also have student loans you
desperately want paid?  

Answer: it depends on your situation! 

If you get a large capital influx

The easy solutions would be
some massive influx of capital, such as stock options in a company that
skyrockets in value or a huge inheritance … or winning a major lottery
prize.  Such an influx of capital would
provide funds to pay off the debt, invest for retirement and cover the costs of
a sabbatical or round-the-world vacation. 

If your spending is meager

At the other end, the problem might
be soluble if your needs at retirement are quite modest.  Meager needs would require less saving to
reach retirement, allowing you to spend more now and even take off from work
for a period of time. 

Everyone else

If you’re spending is average,
and you don’t have the fortune of a major capital influx, then you really need a
good plan that plots out how you will pay off the debt, save money for the
sabbatical or vacation, and still save and invest enough to meet your
retirement needs.

Possible strategies

Obviously, one strategy would
be to delay retirement.  This way you
need to save and invest less now to fund your lifestyle when you do retire.  

Another strategy would be to
commit to saving a great deal now and after the sabbatical or vacation.  This would mean serious cost cutting on
expense so you can save more when you are earning.  

Using debt more is another
strategy.  That is, you can’t do it all
immediately, so you may have to live with the student loan debt longer than planned.
 If you can keep saving for retirement,
you may want to borrow to fund the sabbatical or vacation, with a plan of
paying it off afterwards.  

Cost-out your goals

How do you pick and implement
the best strategy?  First, quantify your
options.  You can calculate what you need
to save for retirement.  This includes
what you set aside in your 401(k) or 403(b) plan and any Roth IRA or
SEP-IRAs. 

When you cost out saving for
the sabbatical or vacation, you cannot count on the return you expect from
retirement savings.  You have short time
horizon and cannot take as much risk. 

Review your student loan debt
to see the interest rate.  If it is low,
you want to delay paying anyway.  See Let’s really
talk about risks

Devising a plan – the goal and resource mash up!

Any planning problem can be solved;
it just requires pushing around all the possible resources and variables so
that you fit the square peg in around hole. 

You sort through the cost of
the goals compared with the total you have decided to save for the goals.  If what you can save doesn’t allow you to
meet your other goals and still take a full year off, then maybe you would have
to settle for nine months, or a less expensive vacation.

Okay, now get going and good
luck (and send us a postcard when you do go away).

When “free” is not free, when paying is worth it

“Quote relating to subject matter, search on: http://www.brainyquote.com/, Select the quote text and then hit the quotation button to create.” – Quote’s Author

Nothing on the internet is truly
free. 

Many sites are lead generation sites, and most social
media websites track our every move to get paid.  If you any doubts, please read this
article:  “Mark
Zuckerberg, Let Me Pay for Facebook
– ‘Free’ social networking sites cost
more than we think.”

If you search
financial planning and other sites on the web for retirement calculators, you
will find many options.  See our prior
post explaining why one
line calculators can differ so much
.

On of these
websites provides “free” use of a gamified retirement calculator.  However, when you delve deeper (I read the
company form ADV as of May, 2015), you learn that the website may receive
compensation from vendors for referring users to financial products and
solutions in order to fulfill action steps, such as lenders for a user who
needs to refinance her mortgage.  The
website receives a referral fee from the mortgage lender. The same for a rollover
of a 401(k), a fee from Schwab, Fidelity or TD Ameritrade, or for life
insurance, a fee from the insurance. 
Furthermore, management of the website own a registered investment adviser and many
are insurance sales people. 

Hardly sounds free – it’s a leadgen portal!

Websites like this are lead generation
portals.  Compare to those “free”
seminars on estate planning put on by insurance salesmen to sell life insurance
and other products.

In contrast, there are good tools,
for which you pay.  One example is the investment
firm Betterment, which recently introduced a new tool available to its paying
customers called “RetireGuide.”
 The firm
describes it as “a new planning tool, available for free to all Betterment
customers, that helps investors work through scenarios, like …. RetireGuide
provides sophisticated retirement guidance that is easy to understand,
always up-to-date, and simple to change as your life changes.  RetireGuide uses information you provide and
the balances from your Betterment accounts, as well as assets outside of
Betterment, to answer these questions. It also provides a seamless way to start
saving more in a globally diversified portfolio of ETFs based on your retirement
plan’s recommendations … This is the only retirement planning tool available to
investors today that merges an advice engine with a way to automatically save
and invest in a diversified portfolio.”

RetireGuide looks very good, as a tool to help you keep
with your retirement plan. 

Where are we at WokeMoney in all this?  We had designed tools and how to steps to
help you create your own plan for free.  However,
that website was never launched. 

What do you think of this?  Your comments would interest me, thanks. 

        

If you help support others, you need life insurance and more – really

If a child, a spouse, a life partner, or a parent depends on you and your income, you need life insurance. 

-Suze Orman

 

She’s right: If you help support others, examine your priories.

Purchasing adequate life insurance and doing your estate plan, viz. signing a will and creating a trust, are probably low on your
list. They should be at the top.

Two good reasons that you should review and act:

I saw the confusion and pain wife had to address when she lost
her husband, before he bought the life insurance he had promised to obtain, and
had to help her kids adjust to the massive change of lifestyle as they sold
their home and downsized because they could no longer afford what their dad,
the chief income earner of their family, had provided them. If they had
proceeds from his life insurance, they would have only been dealing with the
grief of losing him.

I saw adult children deal with the probate process so they could
be appointed administrators of their mom’s estate just to be able to access
bank accounts, pay funeral expenses and then sell and distribute the remainder
of her assets, making their own decisions in place of knowing what she would
have wanted.

So please think again.

If you have not obtained life insurance to replace your earning
power, which helps support your family, and if you have not executed a will,
along with a trust, medical directive and other documents that may be
appropriate, you are not just avoiding an inconvenient imposition on your time
and the payment of premiums and fees, you are failing to properly think of the
consequences of not acting and the impact that could have on your loved ones.

  

Should you “simplify your finances”? No, just gain control & understand your finances

Truth is something which can’t be told in a few words. Those who simplify the universe only reduce the expansion of its meaning. 

-Anais Nin

After reading a recent article
in Kiplinger’s Finance Magazine
on
simplifying your finances, I wondered if your personal finances can really be
made simple.  Sure, many of us hope
so ….

But, I am not sure that “simple” is best.

 

However, gaining control of
your finances and a better understanding does make sense.

Here are some ways that help
you gain control that may also “simplify” your life:

Cash management and Debt
management

Set up automatic payments with
vendors so they use your bank or credit card, or set up payments using your
bank website.

·       If the payments are regular, and of similar amounts, you save
time and can plan on the withdrawals.

·      
However, if you change banks, sorting and resetting auto-pay at
the new bank can be a major headache. Similarly, if you change credit cards,
you need to update information with all vendors.

You can also automate tracking
of your spending by using websites like Mint or Personalcapital.  Or, you can use Quicken or QuickBooks
software from Intuit to track your bank and credit card accounts.  You can download from your bank and credit
card websites into the program and then review to analyze your cash flow and
spending.

Setting up direct deposit for
payroll into your checking is great.  You can also split part so it goes
to savings or even have some go to your investment accounts.  You will
then need to follow up to invest the cash that accumulates, but having money
set aside saves it from being spent, and adds to your investments

Investing

Kiplinger’s recommended
consolidating retirement accounts to avoid low balance fees.  It also
makes updating beneficiary designations easier.

While avoiding fees makes
sense, am not sure that putting all investments into a single retirement
account does.  You cannot do this if you have Roth and pre-tax accounts
like a 401(k) plan, and you probably should not do it if you have contributory
IRA and 401(k) accounts that are subject to different tax rules.

Kiplinger’s also recommended
using one broker for your taxable accounts.  This makes more sense, in
that you have a higher balance which should mean lower fees and more attention
from the broker.  However, I prefer using exchange traded funds, or ETFs,
and avoiding most broker fees, which means essentially no attention from a
broker.

One article said that your
investment plan should be to “sign up and forget it.”  While avoiding
investment pitfalls like second-guessing yourself out of panic when a fund goes
down is good, I do think you need to review and rebalance your investments once
a year.

Another article recommended
using an “all in one” fund for investing.  Now, this really troubles
me.  If your sole goal is retirement, then an age-targeted fund could make
sense.  But, if you are saving for goals with different time horizons,
this is a bad idea.

If you use an age-targeted
fund, do your homework on the funds.  For example, if the fund plans to
suddenly shift to bonds when you retire, that will not serve you well because
you are likely to have several decades for which you will need the growth from
stocks.

Protecting your information

Having a master password for
access to all your other passwords reminds me of the joke about the student who
repeatedly distilled his notes down, first to an outline, then to note cards,
and finally to one word.  How did he do on the day of the exam?  He
forgot the word.

Nonetheless, having passwords
is clearly important so having a way to manage them is as well.  Check out this recent review of apps for
managing your passwords PC Magazine Best Password
Managers for 2015
.
 You can manage the passwords yourself by
creating a document that you save as a PDF and then encrypt.  But don’t forget the password you used for
the PDF!

Store files in one place

We did a post on using cloud
storage when you do not need originals.  Here is another site to check
out:  Shoeboxed

Credit cards

In addition to downloading
transactions as noted above, you can track your credit score and credit history
by using sites like Credit Karma

Estate planning

For insurance purposes, and for
your estate plan, having a record of possessions, you can list all your
property using sites like Know your stuff home inventory.

Conclusion? Too simple may be a bad result

Setting simplification as your primary goal risks distorting your finances. There are ways to gain better
understanding of your finances that also make your finances simpler.  

Use our website to improve your
financial literacy and if you get stuck, ask us questions!

Sermons, partying, hangovers, diets, …. and financial planning

One day I woke up with an atrocious hangover, and it hurt so badly that I told myself, ‘It’s time to stop. I can’t do it anymore. It’s not good. It hurts too much.’ 

-Jordan Knight

Okay, bizarre title, but bear with me:

Financial
planners often feel as if they preach sermons to encourage needed
planning. 

And like most “you should be doing
this!” sermons, their preaching is met with serious resistance. 

 

So here’s a different approach: 

In college, you must have had at least one morning where you
woke up with cobwebs in your head, regretting all the partying you did the
night before.  Not only did you feel
sick, you couldn’t believe how you acted or worse, had no recollection.  And to make all this worse, your bank account
is overdrawn and you maxed out your credit card.

It’s not that you didn’t know better.  Of course you did.  But you told yourself, “hey, I’m young, now’s
my time to live!” 

Okay, now imagine that we are
talking about you waking up at age 60, after several decades of living it up,
with more than cobwebs in your head and an empty wallet:  you don’t have enough to retire.  In fact, you have to work much longer than
you ever hoped. 

You spent decades eating out, entertaining,
going on costly vacations, buying expensive clothes and such instead of saving
what you needed.  Unlike partying in your
20s, where you can catch up on by being frugal later, at age 60 you can’t catch
up and you don’t get to go back a few decades to make up what you needed.  

Just as you know better than
to party all the time, you know that you should be planning for retirement,
even if it is many decades away.  At the
same time, you don’t need to sacrifice everything today for the future. 

What you do need to do is find
a balance in your spending and saving. 
And that is where planning comes in.

Here’s one example: managing
your cash flow:

Preparing a budget requires
some serious work and isn’t that fun. 
You need to review 12 months or more of spending, analyze it and then use
it to project and inform future spending.  You will see where every dollar came in and
went out.  That can enable you to shift
where some dollars go, so you save more for future goals. 

Preparing a budget is
unpleasant and having the discipline to follow it is challenging.  But, like following a diet to lose weight,
your financial health will improve.  If your
doctor says your health depends on a diet, you follow it. 

So now, when a financial planner tells you
that your future financial health requires action now, will you take that seriously?  

I hope so. 

Don’t Worry About Your Student Loan Debt

Too many young people graduate laden with debts that take years, if not decades, to pay off. 

-Robert Reich

Posts recommending “paying off student loans” do not present a plan.  

Paying off debt may be part of a plan, but it is not a complete plan.  Would you tell me that your favorite sports team won on defense alone, not needing any offense?  I didn’t think so. 

 

Being debt-free is a very short-term, near-sighted plan.  

You might want to retain debts with low after-tax interest rates to invest more excess cash flow.  If you have a mortgage with an interest rate of 4% and earn an annualized 7% on retirement investments, you should not be accelerating the payoff of that mortgage.  Doing so is giving up the 7% return in favor of the 4% return, which clearly is not wise. 

Similarly, budgeting or other means by which you reduce spending now to increase savings may be good – or it may involve living foolishly frugal.  Deciding which depends on your overall long-term goals.

Merely reducing spending to increase cash reserves does not mean you are necessarily better off.  It means you are frugal, have a lower standard of living and have cash in the bank.  If it makes you happy, I just hope it makes you equally as happy 10, 20, and 30 or more years from now. 

The same goes for blog posts on the need to create an emergency fund.  Stashing away cash that earns less than the rate of inflation, on an after-tax basis, is rarely prudent. 

If you planned well and bought a home, you may have enough equity in your home to set up an equity line of credit.  You will just need a plan to pay off any debt if you draw on the equity line. 

Alternatively, there are many emergencies for which insurance is far more effective than amassing cash.  You don’t amass cash for the possibility of having a catastrophic illness or the risk of being sued as a homeowner, do you? 

With a complete plan, you’ll be far better off than “debt-free” and “emergency fund” bloggers. 

The point is that a comprehensive financial plan uses ALL tools, cash management, debt management and more to provide a reasonable quality of life now and for the future.

Ignore All the Financial Planning Rules

I always say that it’s about breaking the rules. But the secret of breaking rules in a way that works is understanding what the rules are in the first place.

-Rick Wakeman

General rules of thumb for
financial planning rarely work. 

 

Here are some with my critiques:

“Stocks minus your age should
equal 100” – Bad rule – your
investment allocation depends on your risk tolerance, the rate of return
required to achieve your goals, when you add to investments from annual savings
or stock option exercises and when you remove investments to fund lifestyle
needs. 

“Life insurance must equal six
times compensation” – Bad rule
– your spouse or partner would use all of your resources, including insurance,
to fund lifestyle needs after you die. 
If you review this and determine a short-fall, that is the amount to be
funded by insurance.  It could be more or
less than the six-fold multiple but ensures that your survivors have adequate
resources to be protected. 

“Save 10% of income annually” – Decent rule – however, some may
need to save even more and others may have no savings need.  As with life insurance, the question is
whether the return from assets plus annual savings over your life expectancy
will fund your lifestyle.  

“You only need 70% of income in
retirement” – Bad rule – in
fact, many people spend more in the first years of retirement as they travel
more while spending far less in their 70’s and 80’s as their needs become
fewer.  This can be further complicated
by estate planning goals of gifting to children or charities. 

“Hold six months after-tax income for a rainy
day” – Decent rule – however,
this depends on liquidity, borrowing ability (e.g., home equity line) and cash
flow.  If annual income permits
substantial savings, such that you could pay for a new roof without affecting
lifestyle, your “rainy day” reserve can be much less. 

“Monthly payments on debt should not exceed
20% of income” – Decent rule
– in fact, the rule is somewhat irrelevant in that most lenders apply rules to
limit mortgage payments plus home insurance and property taxes to a percentage
of income.  As with the savings rule,
your level of debt may be more or less depending on assets available, risk
tolerance and lifestyle costs. 

“Do not refinance until rates drop 2%”– Bad rule – the test is simple:
how soon will the cost of refinancing be recouped by lower payments?  With no points/no closing cost loans, this
can a year or less.  Buying down a rate
by paying points will make sense if the pay-off is in 12 to 24 months and if
you plan to stay in the residence for seven years or more. 

“Delete collision coverage on a
car more than 7 years old” – Decent
rule
– as with the “rainy day” reserve, this depends on cash flow and
other resources.  It also depends on
whether the car is your “antique.”

“Do not spend more than 7% of
income on long-term care insurance”– Uncertain
rule
– some people may have sufficient assets to self-insure.  Some people will not risk nursing care due to
bad family health history; they will want to pay for full insurance.  

Are you going to break the rules?

While breaking rules may or may not work for you, creating and sticking to a financial plan will! (The future you will be glad you did!)

What is Retirement?

I actually think the whole concept of retirement is a bit stupid, so yes, I do want to do something else. There is this strange thing that just because chronologically on a Friday night you have reached a certain age… with all that experience, how can it be that on a Monday morning, you are useless? 

-Stuart Rose

Does “retirement” mean no more paycheck and collecting social security? 

What if you don’t want to wait until you are in your 65 to “retire”?

 

Financial Independence

When you have enough money to retire, whether you choose to stop working or not, you are financially independent. So, “saving and investing for retirement” typically means taking some of what you earn to invest so that you have more funds in the future from which you can withdraw to pay for lifestyle expenses, without relying on anyone else for support.  

Use of Insurance

Retirement is different
from being disabled, where you cannot work, for which you may buy disability insurance,
and from early death, for which you can buy life insurance to help take care of your
family.

Putting It All Together

“The financial advice market presents an impossible conundrum: in order to work with a financial planner, you must have enough money to be of interest. In order to amass enough money, it is critical to work with a financial planner. Most financial plans come with a $1,500-$3,000 price tag – numbers that are simply out of reach for most Americans.” 

– Alexa von Tobel

Creating Your Own Money Plan 

You face many financial decisions in life. 

    “Do I buy a house now or continue to rent?”

    “Do I pay off all my student loans right away or begin saving for retirement now too?”

    “Should I lease or buy a car?  Is pre-owned better than brand new?”

    “Can I afford to go to the bachelorette party AND go to the wedding?”

How do you answer these questions? Investopedia states that “there is no specific template for a financial plan” but offers a broad definition here:

         A comprehensive evaluation of an investor’s current and future financial state by using currently known variables to predict future cash flows, asset values and withdrawal plans.

The people that can afford it, work with an investment or tax professional and use current net worth, tax liabilities, asset allocation, and future retirement and estate plans in developing the plan.  These will be used along with estimates of asset growth to determine if a person’s financial goals can be met in the future, or what steps need to be taken to ensure that they are. 

Hiring a professional is expensive, and often you already need a decent chunk of money to even get started in investing. If you aren’t ready to hire someone to create your plan, you can develop your own plan now.  This way, you get to know what you should be doing now.  A simple plan is a list of goals and ways of getting there:

To create this plan, you by start by understanding your long-term financial goals and your resources.

Time value of money – Cost out your Goals:

As you saw in our section on the time value of money, investments compounding over time have a big impact on future goals, but so does inflation.  Those factor in on these long-term goals: 

Retirement 

Many investor sites offer free calculators that factor in return on investment and inflation.  The results allow you to estimate how much you need to save now to be able to fund a reasonable retirement, but remember it’s not a guarantee.  

Life insurance 

If you have children, you should have insurance. If anything happens to you, your loved ones will be financially secure.

College  

If you have children who hope to go to college, or if you plan to return for a new degree, you can find websites that help you estimate what you need to save now.

You may have other goals as well, such as buying a home.  And you will want to create an emergency fund.  Put these all in order of priority on one side of the plan you are sketching out. 

Every dollar has a job – Use all your Resources

You learned in our section “Every Dollar Has a Job” that you need to account for all of your resources.  These include the income you earn, credit card awards, tax refunds and company benefits. 

List these on the other side of the plan you are sketching out. 

Woke money is smart money – Have a Plan

The art of creating a workable plan is to mesh the goals with the resources in the best way.  If your situation is complex, you may want advice from a professional. Some websites offer free tools, like the budgeting tool on Learnvest, and offer financial advice at a more affordable price than traditional financial advisors.

In the end, your plan will remind you what to do so you improve your finances.  Here is a sample list:

  • ‍Maximize my 401(k) contributions,
  • Set up and contribute to a Roth IRA from my side gig,
  • Add to my emergency fund,
  • Monitor my credit rating,
  • Steer clear of any major credit card debt,
  • Review my beneficiary designations at work,
  • Sign a medical directive and durable power of attorney, and
  • Save enough for a fun (not too expensive) vacation next summer!

It doesn’t matter how many pages or what the plan looks like; what matters is that you learn from reviewing your finances and change how you manage your resources so that you improve your finances.  A simple list on a Post-It is a great plan, if you follow it!